viernes, 18 de noviembre de 2016

Folklore, por Rafael Antonio Strauss Kazen, Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela Fundación Polar, versión en inglés.

Folklore [Versión en inglés, sin especificaciones de créditos], en “Seccion: Tradiciones Folklore y Valores de Venezuela”, de Guiatur Guia de Turismo Venezuela, 18.5.2008, y en The Venezuela EcoPortal una traducción sin darme crédito ni al Diccionario de Historia de Venezuela Fundación Polar, que consulté en Sunday, May 5, 2013.

The formal studies of the Venezuelan folklore are of recent it dates, although the concern to pick up the popular expressions, is quite old. Those that first they work in this sense they are the own columnists whose work is constituted, for it same, in an indispensable consultation source. To know how she/he leaves concocting the mestizo hank of the venezolanidad, it is necessary to leave of brother Pedro of Watery and their Summary record of Venezuela (1581). it is necessary to study brother Pedro Simón News records of the mainland conquest in the Western India (1627), to brother Hyacinth of Carvajal Relación of the discovery of the river it Hurries until their entrance in the Orinoco (1647). This in the concerning thing to the XVI and XVII centuries. In the XVIII century: José of Oviedo and Baños Historia of the conquest and population of the county of Venezuela (1723), José Gumilla The cultured Orinoco (1741), brother Antonio Caulín History corográfica, natural and evangelical of the New Andalusia (1779) and Felipe Salvador Gilij Rehearsal of American history (1780). A brief history of the folklore studies in Venezuela could be structured in 4 stages. 

First stage 
At the beginning of the XIX century, a clear linking is appreciated among the well-known literary current as literature of manners and what will understand each other for the moment as «folklore or square of customs», formed by that complex world of details that the writer understood and it characterized as characteristic of the Venezuelan town. The literature of manners will reflect in its pages what the historical science of the moment had not assumed as object of interest: the particularity with which you/they leave profiling towns and Venezuelan cities in that complex processes decimonónico of conformation of the new national society. It is for it that authors like Pedro Díaz Seijas locate the Venezuelan literature of manners as bridge between the history and the novel and although that gender participates of both, it will be the call traditionalism, variant of the literature of manners, the nearest gender or, like Miguel Acosta Saignes, the most consequent gender with the history points. The concern for the national thing will be, however, in the criollismo. One of their maximum exponents is Luis Manuel Urbaneja Achelpohl of whose work Antonio Requena says: «…Poder to travel the Venezuelan folklore without exotic expression guides; to be capable, as it was it, of to dive in the soul of the town and to extract of there the inexhaustible flow of a typical fondness for the coalition of races in their formation and origins (...) to value the fair environmental proportions, localismo and habit properly, to be able to make them universal…» In synthesis, she/he will come off of the literature of manners a literary current, the criollismo, another of historical court as it was it the traditionalism and a third that when saying of Acosta Saignes, it is built by the effort to know the traditional culture of the country scientifically and that it will be formed by the first farmers of the folklore in Venezuela. They stand out among these Nicanor Bolet Peraza and Teófilo Rodríguez, collaborating regular of The Cultured Cripple. This magazine (1892-1915) it was the first Venezuelan publication that included, until their disappearance, the folkloric thing with a clearing sense of the particularities of the term and of the discipline. In 1885, however, the Venezuelan intellectual atmosphere will know the popular Traditions in whose introduction its author Teófilo Rodríguez, without using the term «folklore», a series of considerations that you/they could be assumed points like a conceptualization. She/he writes: «…Sea which fuere the degree of civilization of a town, already old, already modern, she/he prays powerful and rich, she/he prays incipient and weak, it is a fact that she/he never stops to have like integral part of their annals, a group of concerns and beliefs so generally ingrained, so carefully conserved that end up by themselves forming one as special history that can subsist and that, indeed, it subsists, even when the nation for that constituted town, you viere in the course of the transformed time, dispersed or subjected to foreign dominance…» it is for this reason that Acosta Saignes qualifies to Rodríguez like protofolklorista. The initiator of the folkloric studies in Venezuela was Adolfo Ernst who first in the magazine Records of the Anthropological Society of Berlin (1889) and then in the magazine The Cultured Cripple (1893), it published a series of verses with the title «For the popular song book of Venezuela» that, Ernst would think, somebody would be in charge of of structuring scientifically some day. The term folklore is inscribed for the first time in Venezuela by Red Arístides in The Cultured Cripple. They are also to this last one, the first ideologies on that discipline and it is clear that Red, for the forcefulness of their considerations, it followed the positions that were made in the exterior about the folklore, very closely also, of course, of their own conclusions. In their chosen Works (Paris, 1907) it points: «…La popular literature, when she/he refers to the intimate history of the family, of the town and it turns on customs, uses, beliefs, superstitions, traditions, phenomenons of the nature, this, stories, popular songs, riddles, proverbs, the popular reason of all the things, games, omens, etc., transmitted in an oral way of parents to children, of generation in generation, it is what constitutes the field of the human knowledge that she/he calls himself Folklore…» besides this descriptive conceptualization of the discipline, Red it proposes, in general terms, a methodology for «…salvar the materials of the Venezuelan folklore…» In the study of the folklore, she/he writes, 2 purposes that lead to the folklorist to oneself end exist: the knowledge of the history of a town. «…En the one figure the monograph, the cultured dissertation (...) In the other road the folklorist simply relates news that you/he/she picks up, without entering in the compared studies: it stacks and it contributes, therefore, to the wealth of the crop…» In 1918, José Antonio Tagliaferro founds Venezuelan Culture, basically literary magazine. Although up to 1934, it dates of their disappearance, it was constant the section «Venezuelan Folklore», their content grieves it corresponds with that defined then until that as folklore. It, maybe, to the generality like the one that is justified the plan of the magazine as for including «…todas those manifestations that constitute the unequivocal exponent of our culture…» Of Indian Re, the first Venezuelan magazine specialized in social sciences, enters in circulation the month of September of the same year that the previous one. It will be the organ of diffusion of the Venezuelan Society of Americanist Free Studies and the folklore area is one of its sections, the same thing that that of ethnology in which will be included, according to Acosta Saignes, some important articles for what will understand each other in following years as folklore. With their fourth number, Of Indian Re she/he stops to exist and the concern for the folklore, from then on and until the creation of the Service of National Folkloric Investigations, it is made singular rather. José E. Machado, collaborator of the mentioned magazines, will publish in 1919, Song book popular Venezuelan; in 1920, lyrical, Lampooned Patchwork and songs, Epigrams and Mexican ballads; in 1922, the second edition of the Song book; May of 1924, 11 present before the National Academy of the History the first dissertation it has more than enough folklore; in their exhibition it won't only valorize the work of Red Arístides but rather it also links what was the Venezuelan interest for the folklore with the interest until that moment that, for the same one, it exists outside of Venezuela, amen of exposing their own considerations: «Academic …Señores: the invasion of new ethnic elements that the easiness of the communications and the growing commercial and industrial movement impels toward these places, full with promises for the future for the multiple gifts with which it endowed them the nature, it spreads to sweep our traditional and historical characters. (...) The duty is imposed that will call patriotic, of fixing the types, uses and customs of our past that if not always better (...) it is the first link of the chain that connects us to the future…» TO Machado, in the historical sequence, Enrique Planchart continues him with his rehearsal «Observations on the Venezuelan song book» that publishes in Venezuelan Culture (1921). In the same decade, and from the interior of the country, the presbítero J.M. Guevara Carrera publishes in City Bolivar popular Traditions of Venezuela (1925). In 1930, the critical Rafael Angarita Arvelo publishes popular Poetry, Illustrations of the Castilian romancero, Song book and Venezuelan romancero. Another farmer of the gender, Víctor M. Ovalles, will publish in 1935 Creole Sentences and in his folklore concept, they reappear the bonds with the literary thing of final of the XIX century. With Eloy González the folklore studies obtain clear scientific tendency. The course that dictates in 1939 to students of letters and of history in the Pedagogic Institute of Caracas represents, mainly, an important didactic element. Venezuelan records will make their appearance in 1945. It is the bulletin of the group of Caracas of the Interamerican Society of Anthropology and Geography. The folklore was one of its areas of interest, and already in the núm. 2, Tulio López Ramírez wrote its titled rehearsal «I Study and perspectives of our folklore». The significant of this article, was worth it of the publishing group of Venezuelan Records, Walter Dupouy, Tulio López Ramírez, José M. Cruxent, Gilberto Antolínez, Tulio Febres Cordero, among other, and the bonds of this and of that with the Museum of Natural Sciences prepare the transition toward a second stage in the studies of the folklore in Venezuela. It is illustrative, for example, the town definition given by Ramírez, in which includes: «…no only to those that take a to live rural, but also to the urban low classes and those people that possess an enough culture but that in many of their facts they maintain a net traditionalist character…» they are equally significant Francisco Tamayo's rehearsals of linking the popular thing with the different biophysical landscapes of the state Lara and that of Miguel Acosta Saignes on the rural housing in the town cojedeña of Macapo, since they provide a new element to the concerns of theoretical type of the folklore. 

Second stage 
The creation of the Service of National Folkloric Investigations (I decree núm. 430 of October 30 1946) that worked in the Museum of Natural Sciences of Caracas starting from February of 1947, 9 it is the institutional fact that inaugurates a second stage of the folklore studies in Venezuela. That same year, it publishes their National Magazine of Folklore, first Venezuelan publication specialized in that matter and of which 2 numbers were only published. Luis Felipe Ramón and Rivera, Luis Arturo Domínguez, Rafael Olivares Figueroa, Juan Pablo Sojo, Pedro Grases, Isabel Aretz is some of the new names of studious of the Venezuelan folklore that under the direction of Juan Liscano, they will offer the results of her respective works that they are characterized, in a first moment, for the mere gathering of data. As for the theoretical level, it isimportant Olivares Figueroa's contribution in connection with the word town to which gives «…más that the etymological sense of the old language Anglo Saxon folk or masse, that of the Latin populus, in their born meaning, this is, as soon as she/he understands in yes all the social classes; convinced that the folklore is not exclusive of a social stratum, but rather it fluctuates, in more or smaller proportion, in periodic evolutions, through all; being one of the reasons that have taken us to serve us, with the forced cautions, of a documentation, mainly oral, coming from culture individuals and condition varies, what reveals the lexicon in each case…» AT 1950 it corresponds another significant contribution that Juan Liscano offers in Folklore and culture: «…En reality has always had folklore (...) The folklore is the knowledge for communion that you/they always have certain human groups, in opposition with the knowledge for distinction…» Another of its more significant reflections is its critic to the athering excess, characteristic already pointed out by López Ramírez. Liscano was overwhelming: «…El mere reporter of folkloric data and, unfortunately, they are the more ones, it should not aspire to folklorist's denomination, if we want to conserve some dignity for this term. It is need, to understand the folklore, a firm base of historical conscience, a minimun of intellectual knowledge and certain human sensibility. With sadness we aim that many of the calls folklorists, are not but true bricklayers recolectores, peons of the thought, lacking of the most elementary sense in the culture and shielded more or less behind a method happyof classification…» These words reveal what began to be characteristic and that it is still it, of the studies of the Venezuelan folklore. During this periodshe/he will take place the first public national sample that as a summary of the nationalfolklore or Party of the Tradition will be presented in the New Circus (17-21.2.1948) with reason of the taking of the president's possession Galician Rómulo. Another very important activity is the course that the specialist StithThompson dictates in the Museum of Natural Sciences that, when saying of Acosta Saignes, «…Orientó to many, put order in the ideas of other and it sowed restlessness for the classificatory rigor and the scientific treatment in the materials, as well as for the systematizing of the field works…» In 1949 Francisco Carreño it assumes the address of the Service that, from July 1 1953 Institute of Folklorewill be denominated. Before it, we have other significant elements of the lastexpressions, maybe, of the scientific treatment with the one that the study of the folklore was confronted in Venezuela; they are them, the appearance of the Venezuelan Files of Folklore, of the seminar been founded by Olivares Figueroa in the Central University of Venezuela (1948) and the creation of the department of History, under the direction of José Antonio Of Armas Chitty. These last ones pass to form part of the Institute of Anthropology and Geography, been founded in 1949, which will publish the 4 numbers of Files under the Ángel responsibility Rosenblat, Miguel Acosta Saignes and Rafael Olivares Figueroa. Other contributions in the decade of 1950 deserve shallow reference. The first one, of individual character, refers to the one that made Luis T. Laffer to the incipient filmography and discografía folkloric Venezuelan. Their recordings, almost a hundred, they pick up indigenous music, Creole and thematic as: Bolivar sung by their town and The history and politics in the Venezuelan folklore. In fact this it is the only collection well-known discográfica recorded in situ of music traditional Venezuelan. The other contributionrepresents it the first national tour of The Altarpiece of Marvels. It was a movement of popular-nationalist court been founded by Manuel Cardinal red Rodríguez, official of the cultural area of the Ministry of the Work, with more than 1.000 hard-working youths. It assumes as their repertoire dances and popular representations of Venezuela that were shown in tours in practically the whole country. In fact, this experience will be the second national sample of a part of our traditional culture. And lastly, between 1953 and 1955, they are published 3 important works of Lisandro Alvarado posthumously: Glossary of indigenous voices of Venezuela, Glossary of the Spanish first floor in Venezuela (First Part) and Glossary of the Spanish first floor in Venezuela (Second Part), a specialist that, along their life, it was always aware of the historical meaning of the gathering of data that you/they offer to the investigator contemporary sure rules on our to make popular. The conception of its own work doesn't leave place to doubts about the destination that she/he wanted to give to its considerations: «…Escribimos [she/he says] it doesn't stop the sages, but for the men consecrated to the agricultural and cattle tasks, taken in general away from all source of information…» 
Third stage 
Soon after of the edition of the Venezuelan Files of Folklore, the first number of the Bulletin of the Institute of Folklore, new name of the Service of National Folkloric Investigations, will appear now under the direction of Luis Felipe Ramón and Rivera whose conception of the folklore and of its study signará in good part the work in this Institute. In this Bulletin whose hard publication up to 1955, they incorporate new names: Pilar Almoina of Career, Miguel Cardona, Gustavo Luis Carrera, Abilio Reyes. While the husbands Career is in charge of of the literary Folklore, Miguel Cardona specializes in the material folklore (his works are picked up in a posthumous book: Folklore topics) and Abilio Reyes in the dances and popular parties. In May of 1968, directed by Luis Felipe Ramón and Rivera, it circulates the first number of the Venezuelan Magazine of Folklore like organ of the Institute of dependent Folklore of the National Institute of Culture and fine arts, and that, in 1972, it changes their name for that of National Institute of Folklore. In this magazine, of which 4 numbers circulate, works of a great number are published of studious of the whole country. In 1971, be believed the Interamerican Institute of Etnomusicología and Folklore, directed by Isabel Aretz up to 1985 and in 1972, the National Museum of Folklore. For the training, mainly of educational, in the areas of the folklore, the Center of Technical Formation will work (CEFORTEC, 1972-1977). Isabel Aretz, in her Manual of Venezuelan folklore, goes in the folklore the empiric culture of the town transmitted for via oral; she/he affirms that «folkloric made …Los, it doesn't care their origin, they have an unequivocal individuality and they form a cultural package, as those that are distinguished in Ethnography when the indigenous cultures are studied…» This synchronous and descriptive vision is the one that will characterize the studies of the folklore. In spite of this, the interest for the popular thing during the decade of 1960 won't be subordinated to this institucionalización that the Venezuelan State consolidates up in the entities mentioned for the study of the folklore. Along the decade and extending up to 1985, they will give a series of facts that you/they will be critical answers, but not connected to each other, to the stagnation in the one that the studies of the folklore have been caught in Venezuela. To say it in words of Miguel Otero Silva written in 1979: «…el folklore has been bounded to its condition of study matter (...) We believe firmly that, as long as the museums, the libraries, the orchestras, the radio, the television, the cinema, the theater and the folklore exist to the margin of the town, of the neighborhoods, of the county, as long as she/he is not awarded to the town its creative paper, our state organisms of culture won't surpass the bureaucratic limits neither they will stop to be unwrapped as sterile laboratories…» A sample of those facts should begin her with the Cultural Congress of the city of Cabimas, taken place in December of 1970. Although their thematic one didn't refer specifically to the folkloric thing, the reports and resolutions on the social, economic situation, politics and cultural discussed in him they will give objective elements that will be recaptured, later years, in a discussion still effective, have more than enough popular culture in general and on culture popular Venezuelan in particular. In June of 1976, she/he takes place in Tovar, the First Encounter of Organisms and Workers of the Culture of the occident of the country; in December of 1977, she/he took place in Barquisimeto the Encounter for the National Defense of the Cultura Aquiles Nazoa whose celebrated sentence «I Believe in the creative powers of the town», she/he goes to guide fungir in this and many other national and local events, among those that the Encounter of Prison and the Student National Encounter stand out and of Workers of the Education taken place in Merida between the 1 and June 4 1978. In May of the same year, it is given in the Zulia the Encounter of Maracaibo and in July, in Barquisimeto, they settle the First National Days of Critical Anthropology. July 17 1979 are inaugurated in Caracas the First Day about the Native and the National Identity. In April of 1980, in a street act taken place in Caracas, it is given to know the National Foundation of the Popular Culture, at the moment become Federation. Toward final of May of 1981 the celebration of the Days of the Black Culture is announced; for November of that year she/he gets ready the Festival of the Other Culture, in the Park of the East and that same month, she/he takes place the First Seminar of Cultural Promotion and Alternative Communication. The National Encounters of Exciting Culturales-Plan Sebucán and the First Interamerican Congress of Etnomusicología and Folklore were events organized by cultural institutions of the Venezuelan State in 1983. Their historical importance rests in that the tendency of most of the reports and mainly, of the conclusions of the table works, they will highlight the characteristic markedly descriptive of the studies of the folklore and the eventismo in the one that what will be denominated the fell «official popular culture». 
Fourth stage 
For resolution of June of 1985, 20 the National Council of the Culture (BRANDY), believe the Comisión Reestructuradora of the Interamerican Institute of Etnomusicología and Folklore, of the National Institute of Folklore and of the National Museum of Folklore, integrated by J.M. Cruxent, Erika Wagner and Rafael Strauss. As a result of an exhaustive investigation, the Commission recommended to the Presidency of the BRANDY the unification of the 3 entities in what would be denominated Center for the Study of the Arts and Popular Traditions. At the beginning of the decade of 1990 this institution would be constituted in the Foundation of Etnomusicología and Folklore (FUNDEF). Toward final of 1985 news of the creation were had of we were FOUNDED or Foundation Miguel Otero Silva, one of whose areas of interest would be the popular culture. And for the same time, she/he gets ready the creation of the CEDOCUPO or Documental Center of the Popular Culture, in the Central University of Venezuela (schools of History and of Education, mainly). The Athenaeum of Caracas, on the other hand, it has already celebrated several significant days in which the traditional popular culture and the urban popular culture have constituted the center of interest. Outside of Caracas, they have come being also given actions of theoretical-practical reinterpretación of that that, starting from the decade of 1970, she/he has come being denominated, inside the mark of a healthy and fruitful discussion, «popular culture».